Adverbs תואר הפועל

The Hebrew term for adverb is תואר הפועל.

1. Primitive adverbs are those of negation, לא not = οὐ, ουκ, אל = μη, אין there (is) not, and some few others of place and time, as שׁם there then.

These adverbs may at least for grammatical purposes be regarded as primitive, even if it be possible to trace them to other roots, particularly pronominal roots.

2.  Examples of other parts of speech which, without any change of form, are used adverbially are:

(a)  Substantives with prepositions; e.g. (with might) , very greatly; לבד alone (prop. in separateness), with suffix לבדי I alone (prop. in my separateness); within; כאחד (as one), together.

(b) Substances in the accusative (the causus adverbialis of the Shemites), compare , as (might), very greatly;  (cessation),  no more ; היום (this day) today ; יחד (union) , together. Many of these substantives very seldom exhibit their original signification as nouns e.g. (circuit) around; others have wholly lost it, as  (length), long ago  ; (repetition), again, father, longer.

(c) Adjectives, especially in the feminine (which answers to the neuter), as כן recte, ita (prop. rectum), (primum) at first, formerly, much, enough. wonderfully (prop. mirabilibus, sc. modis), the second time, Jewish, i.e. in the Jewish language.

(d) Verbs in the Infinitive absolute, especially in Hiphil, which are also to be regarded as accusatives; e.g. (prop. doing much), much.

(e) Pronouns, as (prop. this = at this place ) , here.

(3) Other adverbs have been formed by the addition of formative syllable  (more seldom  ) to substantives, as and truly, from אמן truth ; (for thanks) gratis, in vain ; יומם by day from יום ; in a twinkling from twinkling.

(4) Adverbs formed by the abbreviation or mutiliation of longer words;  such, for example, as אך only (prop. an affirmative particle from , Chald.)  and especially the interogative , e.g.  nonne? num etiam? which originated in the more full form Deuteronomy 32:6.

(5) Some adverbs, involving a verbal idea, admit also of a pronominal suffixes, which are used here generally in the same form as with verbs, namely with Nun epenthetic. E.g. he (is) present, I (am) not, he (is) not, he (is) still, where (is) he? The same applies to and behold! (prop. here, here is), with suffixes; as in pause and behold one ; in pause and.

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